The planet is warming from greenhouse gas emissions, with increases in both peak and average temperatures. Consequently, the demand for cooling will intensify, driven by climate change as well as improving economic conditions. Cooling requirements for data centers and new technologies may also call for innovative solutions. Developing a wide array of cooling strategies will be vital for human comfort and prevention of heat-induced medical emergencies. A growing number of materials and methods are being designed to improve technologies, meet the temperature needs of data centers and other facilities, and reduce harmful emissions.